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WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT
A Handbook of Community Water Supplies


American Water Works Association
Raymond D. Letterman Technical Editor



Chapter 1:Drinking Water Quality Standards, Regulations, and Goals
Early Development of Drinking Water Standards/ 1.2
Early History of U.S.Federal Drinking Water Standards/ 1.2
The Safe Drinking Water Act/ 1.4
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments,1977 Through 1986/ 1.8
1988 Lead Contamination Control Act/ 1.9
1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments/ 1.9
Development of National Primary Drinking Water Regulations/ 1.11
Current National Primary Drinking Water Regulations/ 1.31
International Drinking Water Standards/ 1.39
Trends for the Future/ 1.40
Bibliography/ 1.41

Chapter 2:Health and Aesthetic Aspects of Water Quality
Waterborne Disease Outbreaks/ 2.2
Pathogenic Organisms/ 2.4
Indicators and Indicator Organisms/ 2.14
The Health Effects of Chemicals/ 2.18
Inorganic Constituents/ 2.22
Organic Constituents/ 2.34
Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products/ 2.54
Radionuclides/ 2.66
Aesthetic Quality/ 2.68
Summary/ 2.72
Bibliography/ 2.72

Chapter 3:Guide to Selection of Water Treatment Processes
Water Supply Approaches/ 3.2
Factors Influencing Process Selection/ 3.3
Evaluating Process Options/ 3.13
Examples of Treatment Process Selection/ 3.14
Summary/ 3.25
Bibliography/ 3.25

Chapter 4:Source Water Quality Management
Groundwater 4.1
Groundwater Source Quality:Relationship with Surface Water and Regulation/ 4.1
General Overview of Groundwater Sources and Impacts on Their Quality/ 4.2
Patterns of Private and Public Groundwater Source Uses:
Quality Management Issues/ 4.9
Bibliography/ 4.43
Surface Water 4.47
4.57
Quality Management of Surface Water Sources
Bibliography 4.63

Chapter 5:Air Stripping and Aeration5.1
Theory of Gas Transfer/ 5.1
Unit Operations/ 5.14
Diffused or Bubble Aeration/ 5.43
Surface Aeration/ 5.56
Spray Aerators/ 5.61
Bibliography/ 5.66

Chapter 6:Coagulation and Flocculation6.1
Definitions/ 6.2
Contaminants/ 6.3
Stability of Particle Suspensions/ 6.8
Coagulants/ 6.15
The Flocculation Process/ 6.44
Bibliography/ 6.61

Chapter 7:Sedimentation and Flotation7.1
History of Sedimentation/ 7.1
Sedimentation Theory/ 7.3
Operational and Design Considerations for Sedimentation/ 7.28
Dissolved-Air Flotation/ 7.47
Theory of Dissolved-Air Flotation/ 7.49
Operational and Design Considerations for Flotation/ 7.61
Applications/ 7.75
Nomenclature/ 7.80
Bibliography/ 7.82

Chapter 8:Granular Bed and Precoat Filtration8.1
An Overview of Potable Water Filtration/ 8.1
Filter Media/ 8.7
Hydraulics of Flow Through Porous Media/ 8.11
Rapid Granular Bed Filtration/ 8.16
Theory of Rapid Filtration and Modeling/ 8.32
Rapid Filter Performance/ 8.39
Direct Filtration/ 8.49
Flow Control in Filtration/ 8.54
Backwashing of Rapid Filters/ 8.58
Problems in Rapid Filters/ 8.68
Pressure Granular Bed Filters/ 8.71
Slow Sand Filters/ 8.74
Precoat Filtration/ 8.81
Other Filters/ 8.89
Emerging Technology/ 8.91
Waste Disposal/ 8.92
Bibliography/ 8.92

Chapter 9:Ion Exchange and Inorganic Adsorption9.1
Introduction and Theory of Ion Exchange/ 9.1
Ion Exchange Materials and Reactions/ 9.3
Ion Exchange Equilibrium/ 9.9
Ion Exchange and Adsorption Kinetics/ 9.16
Column Processes and Calculations/ 9.18
Design Considerations/ 9.26
Cocurrent Versus Countercurrent Regeneration/ 9.28
Applications of Ion Exchange and Adsorption/ 9.29
Barium Removal by Ion Exchange/ 9.35
Radium Removal by Ion Exchange/ 9.35
Nitrate Removal by Ion Exchange/ 9.37
Fluoride Removal by Activated Alumina/ 9.44
Arsenic Removal by Resins and Alumina/ 9.49
Arsenic Removal by Ion Exchange/ 9.57
Selenium Removal by Resins and Alumina/ 9.64
Chromate Removal by Anion Exchange/ 9.65
Color and Organics Removal by Resins/ 9.68
Uranium Removal by Anion Exchange/ 9.74
Perchlorate Removal by Anion Exchange/ 9.81
Waste Disposal/ 9.86
Summary/ 9.87
Bibliography/ 9.87

Chapter 10:Chemical Precipitation10.1
Fundamentals of Chemical Precipitation/ 10.1
Water Softening by Chemical Precipitation/ 10.13
Removal of Nominal Organic Material/ 10.47
Removal of Other Contaminants by Precipitation/ 10.51
Future Trends in Softening/ 10.56
Bibliography/ 10.57

Chapter 11:Membranes11.1
Classifications and Configurations of Membrane Processes/ 11.6
Membrane Properties and Rejection Characteristics/ 11.19
Mass Transport and Separation/ 11.27
Process Design Criteria/ 11.42
Waste Disposal/ 11.66
Bibliography/ 11.67

Chapter 12:Chemical Oxidation12.1
Principles of Oxidation/ 12.2
Oxidants Used in Water Treatment/ 12.11
Applications of Oxidation Processes/ 12.24
Formation of Disinfection (and Oxidation) By-Products/ 12.29
Summary/ 12.46
Bibliography/ 12.46

Chapter 13:Adsorption of Organic Compounds13.1
Adsorption Theory/ 13.2
GAC Adsorption Systems/ 13.16
Performance of GAC Systems/ 13.24
GAC Performance Estimation/ 13.47
PAC Adsorption Systems/ 13.62
PAC Performance/ 13.67
Thermal Reactivation of GAC/ 13.70
Adsorption of Organic Matter on Resins/ 13.74
Bibliography/ 13.76

Chapter 14:Disinfection14.1
History of Disinfection/ 14.2
Disinfectants and Theory of Disinfection/ 14.4
Disinfectant Demand Reactions/ 14.9
Assessment of Microbial Quality (Indicators)/ 14.20
Pathogens of Concern/ 14.21
Disinfection Kinetics/ 14.22
The CT Approach in Regulation/ 14.30
UV Processes/ 14.32
Mode of Action of Disinfectants/ 14.32
Disinfectant Residuals for Posttreatment Protection/ 14.35
Application of Technologies/ 14.36
Use of Multiple Disinfectants/ 14.47
Relative Comparisons/ 14.48
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting/ 14.48
Bibliography/ 14.49

Chapter 15:Water Fluoridation15.1
History/ 15.1
Recent Studies/ 15.4
Present Status of Fluoridation/ 15.5
Theory/ 15.7
Operational and Design Considerations/ 15.9
Application/ 15.13
Bibliography/ 15.17

Chapter 16:Water Treatment Plant Residuals Management16.1
Quantity of Solid/Liquid Residuals Generated/ 16.2
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Solid/Liquid Residuals/ 16.7
Thickening Solid/Liquid Residuals/ 16.16
Nonmechanical Dewatering of Solid/Liquid Residuals/ 16.24
Mechanical Dewatering of Solid/Liquid Residuals/ 16.31
Recycle/ 16.39
Membrane and Ion Exchange Residuals/ 16.41
Ultimate Disposal and Utilization of Solids/ 16.42
Bibliography/ 16.50

Chapter 17:Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control17.1
Corrosion,Passivation,and Immunity/ 17.3
Types of Corrosion/ 17.23
Physical Factors Affecting Corrosion and Metals Release/ 17.30
Chemical Factors Affecting Corrosion/ 17.34
Corrosion of Specific Materials/ 17.47
Direct Methods for the Assessment of Corrosion/ 17.60
Indirect Methods for the Assessment of Corrosion/ 17.69
Corrosion Control Alternatives/ 17.83
Water Sampling for Corrosion Control/ 17.92
Acknowledgments/ 17.97
Bibliography/ 17.97

Chapter 18:Microbiological Quality Control in Distribution Systems18.1
General Considerations for Contamination Prevention/ 18.1
Engineering Considerations for Contamination Prevention/ 18.2
Factors Contributing to Microbial Quality Deterioration/ 18.5
Microbial Quality of Distributed Water/ 18.8
Microbial Colonization Factors/ 18.18
Monitoring Factors/ 18.24
Summary/ 18.38
Bibliography/ 18.38


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